2014 Quality in Construction

The Quality in Construction Awards recognize asphalt pavements of excellence.  “Quality pavements are something every road builder strives to construct. We want to build pavements that deliver on the promise of high performance and drivability for the public,” said William C. Ensor III, NAPA 2014 Chairman. “Projects that earn a Quality in Construction Award have been measured against industry best practices designed to live up to that promise. I’m proud to say that, in earning a 2014 QIC Award, winning contractors have met or exceeded these rigorous quality standards.”


For 2014, 205 projects completed by 80 companies were honored with a Quality in Construction Award. Ninety of the projects were singled out for their use of sustainable construction practices, such as incorporating reclaimed and recycled materials and using warm-mix asphalt.


Details on the winners and their projects follow.


























New Hampshire

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Dunn Construction Co. Inc. of Birmingham, Ala.

• Work on the Honda Motors parking lot in Lincoln. Dunn Construction Co. tested the pavement extensively during paving, producing a high-quality asphalt parking lot while emphasizing its workers’ on-the job safety.
• Work on I-459 in Jefferson County. The company teamed with the planing contractor to avoid scheduling conflicts associated with time restrictions on lane closures. It incorporated the maximum allowed amount of RAP (reclaimed asphalt pavement), and RAS (recycled asphalt shingles) in the mixes. Working at night, Dunn Construction Co. produced a smooth pavement well within the tight schedule.
• Work on I-59 in Jefferson County. It teamed with subcontractors on the project to meet paving schedules despite restrictions on lane closures. The company used the maximum allowed amounts of RAP, RAS, and slag in the asphalt mixes. With the close collaboration of all partners, the job finished nearly a year ahead of schedule.
• Work on SR 29/Caldwell Mill Road in Shelby County. With restrictions on lane closures, the company had to schedule effectively to maximize efficiency. Dunn Construction Co. used the maximum allowable amount of RAP and slag its asphalt mixes.


Midsouth Paving Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Birmingham, Ala.

• Work on I-459 in Jefferson County. The company performed variable depth milling and cross slope milling so that the new asphalt binder and surface courses would fit with the road’s existing barrier wall and bridges.


Midsouth Paving Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Dothan, Ala.

• Work on County Road 2 in Defuniak Springs, Fla. The overlay project required Midsouth to meet slope and speed requirements without milling the surface. To accomplish this, Midsouth incorporated RAP in the mix designs and surfaced the roadway with a friction course that allows rainwater to drain through the surface layer while improving skid resistance.
• Midsouth Paving won the award for its mill and overlay work on SR 727/Fairfield Drive. It used 20 percent RAP. The finished projected enhanced the roadway’s drivability, enhancing the safety of the traveling public.
• Work on CR 22 in Houston County. The company placed a 2.5-inch binder course and a 1.375-inch surface course of asphalt, matching up the layers each day to avoid a 2-inch drop off between lanes for motorists.
• Work on CR 55 in Houston County. The company placed a 2.5-inch binder course and a 1.375-inch surface course of asphalt, matching layers each day to ensure that motorists did not have to deal with a large drop-off between lanes.
• Widening, mill, and overlay of Henderson Highway and Enzor Road in Pike County. The roads served homes, subdivisions, and a sports complex, making it challenging for the company to pave around heavy traffic volumes.
• Work on Westgate, Fortner, and Montana streets in Houston County. The use of large paving equipment on narrow city streets and the number of intersecting side roads made traffic control for the project especially challenging.


Midsouth Paving Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Montgomery, Ala.

• Work on Autauga CR 37 in Billingsley. The company used WMA (warm-mix asphalt) and incorporated RAP in the mixes. Midsouth Paving widened, leveled, and overlaid the road.
• Work on SR 106 in Butler County. The project included widening at one end, milling the road, and placement of a binder and surface course over the entire roadway.


Wiregrass Construction Co. Inc of Andalusia, Ala.

• Work on Highway 85 in Geneva, Ala. The project was located about an hour from its plant and they ran into rainy weather conditions, which caused concerns due to the long haul times. Wiregrass Construction Co. was able to produce a high-quality, smooth pavement, overcoming the weather condition through carefully planning and adjustments to the construction timeline on the roadway.


Wiregrass Construction Co. Inc. of Ariton, Ala.

• Work on SH 4 in Mustang. Working under traffic in a highly developed area, the company milled the road and placed a 0.75-inch ultra-thin bonded wearing course surface in just a week.
• Work on SR 125 in Pike County. The company milled the existing roadway, leveled, and widened it and then placed a 0.75-inch surface layer of asphalt.



Exclusive Paving of Fairbanks, Alaska

• Preventative maintenance work on Airport Way which serves as a main thoroughfare in Fairbanks and connects the city to Fairbanks International Airport. All of the paving occurred at night, minimizing the inconvenience to the driving public. The project incorporated reclaimed asphalt pavement in the mix design, enhancing its environmental profile.


Granite Construction Co., Alaska Branch of Anchorage, Alaska

• Work on Sterling Highway/AK 1 in Kenai Peninsula Borough. The company partnered with the state to make the milling and overlay project run smoothly. It minimized the impact on tourists traveling in the area by paving at night.



Fann Contracting Inc. of Prescott, Ariz.

• Work on Diamond Bar Road on the Hualapai Indian Reservation. The project consisted of paving 8.5 miles that lead to the Grand Canyon Skywalk. Challenges included the remote location, environmentally sensitive and culturally important areas, maintaining an on-time schedule, and managing two-way traffic.


FNF Construction Inc. of Tempe, Ariz.

• Work on Navajo Route 20/U.S. 89T in the Navajo Nation. This was an emergency project that required the company to build a temporary paved detour on a dirt road to bypass an essential road closed by a landslide.



APAC-Central Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Fayetteville, Ark.

• Work on U.S. 412 in Madison County, a rural road carries high-traffic volumes with a large number of trucks. With the asphalt plant 50 miles away, APAC-Central used more than 50 trucks to haul the asphalt to the jobsite for timely paving.


Rogers Group Inc. of Conway, Ark.

• Work on Highway 89 in Pulaski County. The company spot-milled the existing 4.88 miles of highway before placing a 2-inch asphalt surface on the road. Using enhanced construction practices and techniques, and working around a six-week delay caused by a devastating tornado.
• Widening on 3.8 miles of I-40 in Palarm Creek West in Faulkner County. The scope of work included grading and drainage, placement of an aggregate base plus asphalt binder and surface, and installation of a barrier wall. Despite a setback caused by a tornado, the Rogers Group was able to deliver the finished project ahead of schedule.



Golden Gate Constructors of San Jose, Calif.

• Work on San Francisco International Airport Runway 1/19. The company had to shift runway thresholds and construct new taxiways to allow for installation of an engineered material arrestor system. Crews worked round the clock to produce a high quality pavement under budget and 30 days ahead of schedule, allowing an early reopening of the runways.


Granite Construction Co. of Sacramento, Calif.

• Work on U.S. 50 in Sacramento County. Because of the heavy traffic on the road, the company used nighttime paving, completing the project three days early. It used 120 tons of recycled rubber in the mix for the road’s overlay.



Brannan Sand & Gravel Co. of Denver, Colo.

• Work on Hampden Avenue in the city of Aurora for its stone-matrix asphalt (SMA) overlay program. Scheduling challenges included milling and paving through two heavily traveled intersections. The company performed some work at night, in the early morning hours, and on weekends to limit traffic delays.
• Work on East Long Avenue in the city of Centennial. The road contains multiple curves and passes through a residential area and near a school. There is also an active biking community in the area. Brannan Sand & Gravel Co. patched the road before laying a 2-inch layer of asphalt.
• Work on the town of Parker resurfacing program on Lincoln Avenue. Working around heavy traffic that included numerous bicyclists, the company milled the road and placed a 2-inch overlay.


Martin Marietta Materials of Fort Collins, Colo.

• Work on Laporte Avenue in Fort Collins. The company milled 5 to 7 inches off the existing pavement and then placed 7 inches of new asphalt pavement in three lifts. Work was complicated by the presence of existing manholes, and water valves and shallow utilities.
• Work on 11th Avenue in Greeley. The company milled the road, placed a fiberglass paving fabric, and then laid 3.25 inches of asphalt pavement. Work had to be completed before the annual Greeley Stampede took place and before college students returned to town.
• Work on 9th Avenue in Greeley. The project was located in the heart of the city, close to government buildings, businesses, and a city park. To minimize disruptions, Martin Marietta Materials performed all work on weekends.


Oldcastle Southwest Group of Grand Junction, Colo.

• Work on Chipeta Drive and Spring Creek Road in Montrose, Colo. These projects were challenging due to the timing of the overlay project with the harvest season. The construction crews had to deal with heavy farming equipment traffic, which was bringing in the sweet corn harvest. However, because of the team work between Montrose County, Oldcastle Southwest Group and community leaders, the project received high praise for a job well done.
• Work on U.S. 50 Whitewater East resurfacing in Mesa and Delta Counties. The company placed a 1.25-inch overlay on a slightly rutted roadway whose cracks had recently been filled. It used RAP and laid one lane of WMA for comparison to a lane made with asphalt.



Ajax Paving Industries of Florida LLC of Nokomis, Fla.

• Work on I-75 in Lee County. The company widened the two existing northbound lanes and made extensive drainage improvements before milling and resurfacing the roadway.
• Work on State Road 35/700 (US 301) from north of Pioneer Museum Road to south of Mosstown Road. The project upgraded the pedestrian access by designating new bike lanes and existing bus stop locations were upgraded to meet ADA compliance standards.
• Milling and overlay work on SR 589/Suncoast Parkway in Hernando County. The company used green paving practices, incorporating 20 percent RAP in the asphalt mixes. Ajax Paving Industries produced a smooth roadway that earned incentive pay for its smoothness.


Ajax Paving Industries of Florida LLC of Tampa, Fla.

• Work on Martin Luther King Boulevard in Tampa, Fla. This mill and overlay project took place in a high-traffic, urban environment which required Ajax Paving Industries to minimize traffic delays for construction while providing a safe environment for the paving crews. The team delivered the completed project ahead of the scheduled delivery date with zero safety incidents.


Community Asphalt Corp. of Miami, Fla.

• Work on SR 820 in Pines Boulevard, Fla. The project was a mill and overlay, constructed for the Florida Department of Transportation, to rehabilitate a portion of this heavily travelled roadway. Community Asphalt Corp. began the project by removing the surface layer. After the milling, a leveling course was applied to the pavement which helped to provide a smooth level upon which to construct the surface.
• Work on SR 997 (Krome Avenue) in Miami, Fla. The mill and overlay project occurred in a densely traveled corridor in Florida and required quick construction to minimize impacts to the traveling public. After milling the surface, a leveling course was placed to help smooth out the ride; followed by a friction course to reduce splash and spray.


Community Asphalt Corp. of West Palm Beach, Fla.

• Work on Florida's Turnpike Mainline/SR 91. The company performed innovative deep crack repair on the middle lane, extending the pavement’s life by preventing water from penetrating the road’s base. Community Asphalt Corp. also incorporated RAP into the project’s asphalt mixes.
• Extension of Taxiways D and H at North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport. Work included embankment fill, placement of a lime rock base and two inches of asphalt, plus installation of electrical components for edge lighting and signs. Community Asphalt completed the project on time despite scheduling challenges, runway closure restrictions, and additional work requested by the Palm Beach County Department of Airports.


Duval Asphalt Products Inc. of Jacksonville, Fla.

• Work on the construction of a bike path along U.S. 17 in Clay County. Due to the high water table, the company used an asphalt base on some portions of the project and a shell base on the remaining portions. It then overlaid the entire path with 1 inch of asphalt mix. Duval Asphalt Products also incorporated 40 percent RAP into the mixes.


Preferred Materials Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Jacksonville, Fla.

• Work on SR 13/San Jose Boulevard in Duval County. This reconstruction project included milling and paving approximately five miles of four-lane pavement. Heavy traffic and night-time lane closure restrictions were challenging aspects of the project.
• Work on SR 8/I-10 in Madison County. The project included the milling and overlay of approximately seven miles of four-lane highway, paving of the shoulders, and milling and paving of the ramps at the SR 53 interchange.


Preferred Materials Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Kissimmee, Fla.

• Work on SR 434/Alafaya Trail in Orange County. The company performed milling and overlay of the pavement. It incorporated sustainable paving techniques into the project, including the use of 40 percent RAP in the structural mixes and 20 percent RAP in the friction course. Safety improvements included widening of the pavement, signalization, signage and curb ramp upgrades.
• Work on U.S. 41 in Citrus County. The company milled and overlaid the road, treating shoulders and making corrections on slope, elevation, intersections, and drainage. The company used green paving techniques, incorporating RAP into the mixes.
• Work on roads in various locations throughout Orange County. These were mill and overlay projects that required partnering with members of the public to ensure their safety in subdivisions and other areas.
• Work on roads in various locations throughout Osceola County. The company milled and overlaid pavements in a variety of settings from rural highways to urban multilane roads.


Preferred Materials Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Tampa, Fla.

• Work on SR 687/U.S. 92/4th Street north in St. Petersburg. The company began this milling and overlay project in April 2014 and completed paving of the 6 miles of road just four months later.
• Work on SR 699/Gulf Boulevard in Pinellas County. The company had to perform the milling and resurfacing project around parades and festivals. It partnered with the Florida Department of Transportation and local government agencies to complete the project on time.


Ranger Construction Industries Inc. of West Palm Beach, Fla.

• Work on I-595 in Fort Lauderdale. The four-year project included new construction of the express lanes plus widening, milling, and replacement of several nearby roads. The company had to safely maintain traffic flow of up to 140,000 vehicles a day. During paving, the company used three asphalt plants and up to 10 paving crews at a time.


Ranger Construction Industries Inc. of Winter Garden, Fla.

• Work on the I-4/SR 46 interchange in Sanford. This design/build project helped reduce congestion around the busy interstate interchange. The company used RAP in its pavement.
• Ranger Construction Industries won the award for its work on the mill and overlay of Kissimmee Gateway Airport Runway 4/22. The company used a material transfer vehicle to eliminate segregation and achieved excellent test results in both the lab and the field densities.
• Work on SR 19 in Tavares. The company used sustainable paving techniques, incorporating RAP and recycled tires in the mixes. To eliminate segregation a material transfer vehicle was used.
• Milling and overlay of SR 5/U.S. 1 in Melbourne. The company used RAP and ARB, from recycled tires, into the asphalt mixes. Despite working in a congested urban area, Ranger Construction Industries produced a very smooth roadway with excellent density.
• Milling and overlay of SR A1A on North Hutchinson Island. Ranger Construction Industries incorporated RAP and asphalt rubber binder (ARB), made from recycled tire rubber, into its mixes.
• Mill and overlay of St. Lucie County International Airport Taxiway C. Ranger Construction achieved excellent density results on the pavement’s mat and core, meeting stringent airport paving specifications.
• Mill and overlay of Vero Beach Municipal Airport Runway 4/22. The company used a material transfer vehicle to eliminate segregation, and achieved excellent test results in the laboratory and on the roadway pavement.



C.W. Matthews Contracting Co. Inc. of Marietta, Ga.

• Work on 7.8 miles of I-20 in Douglas County. Because of the high volume of traffic on this road, the company planned construction carefully to minimize disruptions to motorists. C.W. Matthews Construction used RAP in its mixtures.
• Work on I-24 in Dade County. The company milled, patched, and overlaid the road with five different mixes, including Superpave mixtures and a Porous European Mixture (PEM). It also incorporated RAP into the project mixes. The work performed by C. W. Matthews Contracting Co. improved the road’s rideability by 39 percent.


C.W. Matthews Contracting Co. Inc. of Marietta, Ga. and Talley Construction Co. Inc. of Rossville, Ga.

• Work on I-59/SR 406 in Dade County. The companies used reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in mixes to conserve energy and natural resources. Through careful paving practices they produced a high-quality, smooth asphalt pavement.


Everett Dykes Grassing Co. Inc. of Cochran, Ga.

• Work on SR 27 in Appling County. The project included milling, resurfacing, and shoulder rehabilitation. The company paved with mixes that included 15 percent RAP. Through the use of careful paving techniques and careful quality control, it produced a pavement that was 58 percent smoother than the previous road.


The Scruggs Co. of Hahira, Ga.

• Work on SR 35 in Grady County. The company used electronic grade controls, a slow and steady paver, and a material transfer vehicle for the milling and paving operations. The final product was a pavement that showed a 54 percent improvement in smoothness.


Seaboard Construction Co. of Brunswick, Ga.

• Rehabilitation of Brunswick Golden Isles Airport in Brunswick, Ga. The work included repaving Runway 7/25, Taxiway A, and the associated connectors. Seaboard Construction Co. worked in 30 ten-hour shifts and used cutting-edge 3D modeling of the project to take full advantage of GPS millimeter paver controls.



Knife River Corp., Southern Idaho Division of Boise, Idaho

• Work on U.S. 95 in Council, Idaho. The mill and overlay project covered 40 lane miles and had to be completed within 54 working days. With careful preparation and planning for each day’s activities, Knife River Corp. produced the pavement on schedule.
• Work on Outside Highway in Grand Teton National Park. Working with the Teton Park Western Federal Lands Highway Division, the company used mixes that included RAP to place a 0.75-inch surface course of asphalt on the road.



Brooks Construction Co. of Fort Wayne, Ind.

• Work on SR 25 in Tippecanoe County. The project included full depth reconstruction and widening of shoulders to upgrade several drainage structures. The company incorporated 35 percent RAP into the mixes. It produced a high-quality roadway that earned an incentive for its smoothness.
• Work on SR 8/CR 27 in Auburn. The company’s work included new storm drainage construction and milling, resurfacing and full-depth reconstruction on the existing main thoroughfare. Brooks Construction Co. incorporated RAP and steel slag into the asphalt mixes.
• Work on U.S. 30 in Whitley County. The company patched joints and areas of cracking, then milled the pavement. It used different asphalt mixes for the city and rural sections of the roadway, producing very smooth pavements. Brooks Construction Co. also incorporated RAP, RAS and steel slag into its mixes.


E&B Paving Inc. of Anderson, Ind.

• Work on the Auburn Road roundabout in Allen County. The job required total intersection reconstruction and relocation of utilities. Delays caused by utility problems required company crews to work flexible schedules, to complete the job on time. Working under traffic, the company transformed an extremely busy intersection into a continuous flow roundabout that keeps traffic moving smoothly.

• Work on I-69 in Stueben County. After widening the inside shoulder, the company removed all existing asphalt down to the concrete, then repaired the deteriorated concrete joints. It then placed a leveling course of asphalt followed by an additional 4.25 inches of asphalt in two lifts. The company worked under traffic and through four interchanges.
• Work on U.S. 33 North in Allen and Whitley Counties. This heavily traveled road, which serves motorists and Amish horse and buggy traffic, links commuters from northwest Indiana to Fort Wayne. The company had three milling machines working in succession to complete the milling work in one pass.


J.H. Rudolph & Co. Inc. of Evansville, Ind.

• Work on Evansville Regional Airport, Runway 4/22, which included rehabilitation, reconstruction and new construction work. The used 25 percent RAP in the base and intermediate mixes. Paving with multiple laydown techniques and employing strict quality control, J. H. Rudolph & Co. achieved a compact, smooth pavement seven days ahead of schedule.


Milestone Contractors LP of Bloomington, Ind.

• Construction of Indiana University’s Northwest Quad parking lot. The company used green paving techniques to produce a smooth pavement. It incorporated RAP and RAS into the asphalt mixes, and crushed subsurface rock for the sub-base, reducing fuel consumption. Milestone Contractors also built grass median ditches for drainage that provide green space while absorbing water.


Milestone Contractors LP of Columbus, Ind.

• Work on I-74 in Decatur County. The company was awarded the contract prior to a severe winter that increased by 600 percent the amount of patching required on the road. Despite the challenge of the additional work, Milestone Contractors milled and overlaid the road to produce a very smooth asphalt pavement.


Milestone Contractors LP of Indianapolis, Ind.

• Work on Indianapolis Motor Speedway Roadcourse. Milestone Contractors removed the entire road course and 5 inches of material, replacing it with intermediate and surface mixes.


Milestone Contractors LP of Lafayette, Ind.

• Work on various streets in the city of Lafayette. Project challenges included the protection of brick roads adjoining the paving projects and the waiting periods that occurred due to ADA-related improvements made by another contractor. Milestone Contractors milled the roads and placed a 2-inch overlay.


Milestone Contractors LP of Richmond, Ind.

• Construction of Lafayette Street in Portland from Creagor Avenue to Industrial Parkway. The company held biweekly scheduling meetings with the city and local businesses, and changed project phasing to accommodate the needs of an apartment complex and a nursing home.
• Work on SR 32 in Union City. The mill and overlay project was located in the industrial section of the city, making project scheduling challenging. The company incorporated RAP into the project mixes.


Walsh & Kelly Inc. of Griffith, Ind.

• Work on 45th Avenue in Griffith. This reconstruction project required the company to partner with the owners’ engineers, multiple subcontractors, and area residents to complete the work in a timely manner. Walsh & Kelly performed initial work in the fall, then paved the road the following spring.


Walsh & Kelly Inc. of South Bend, Ind.

• Work on the Costco parking lot in Mishawaka. The company had to work around the schedules of many other trades while meeting Costco’s demanding quality standards. The company placed 4 inches of asphalt pavement.



Manatt's Inc. of Newton, Iowa

• Work on IA 1 in Johnson, Linn, and Jones counties. The project included milling and widening the road for 16 miles, then placing a 2-inch overlay on it. The company incorporated all of the milled asphalt into the mixes.


Norris Asphalt Paving Co. of Ottumwa, Iowa

• Work on IA 1 in Washington County. The company used a cold-in-place recycling process, widened the road, and then placed two layers of asphalt pavement to produce a smooth, quality pavement.
• Work on IA 92 in Adair County. For one section, the company milled the road to the concrete, rubblized it, and widened the roadway before paving. The other section included cold-in-place recycling with asphalt overlay.
• Work on U.S. 34 in Montgomery and Adams counties. The project included cold-in-place recycling and widening of the road followed by an asphalt overlay. The company used RAP in its asphalt mixture.


Tri-State Paving, an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Estherville, Iowa

• Work on IA 9 and U.S. 71 in Emmet and Dickinson counties. Challenges included a limited, 1.5-mile work zone due to heavy area traffic, some unexpected problems with the road base, and varying weather conditions that required adjustments to paving techniques.



APAC-Kansas Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Hays, Kan.

• Work on SR 27 in Greeley County. After project delays due to heavy rains, the company achieved a very high production rate. APAC-Kansas partnered with the Kansas Department of Transportation and used green paving techniques, incorporating 45 percent RAP into the mixes.


APAC-Kansas Inc., Shears Division, an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Hutchinson, Kan.

• Work on U.S. 36 in Jewell County. The project included the milling and overlay of the road in three lifts; at the bridge ends and project ends, this work had to be completed the same day.
• Work on U.S. 36 in Republic County. The project included milling and 4-inch overlay of the road in three lifts; at the bridge and project ends, the 7-inch milling and 5.5-inch overlay had to be completed in one day.


Koss Construction Co. of Topeka, Kan.

• Work on I-30 in Hempstead County, Arkansas. The project required the company to complete, a 5-inch asphalt overlay of 7 miles of heavily traveled, 4-lane interstate. Koss Construction Co. used innovative traffic control devices such as temporary portable rumble strips to keep motorists and workers safe during the project.



H.G. Mays Corp. of Frankfort, Ky.

• Work on I-64/Louisville Lexington Road in Shelby County. The three-phase project included reconstruction and widening of the original four-lane interstate to six lanes. Working with another contractor to complete the project within a tight schedule.


Louisville Paving & Construction Co. of Louisville, Ky.

• Work on I-64/Louisville Lexington Road in Shelby County. The three-phase project included reconstruction and widening of the original four-lane interstate to six lanes and bridge reconstruction. The project required multiple lane and traffic changes.


Mago Construction Co. of Bardstown, Ky.

• Work on I-64/Louisville Lexington Road in Shelby County. The project included reconstruction of some existing pavement, widening of the original four-lane interstate to six lanes, and bridge reconstruction. Its three phases required multiple lane and traffic changes.


Scotty's Contracting & Stone LLC of Bowling Green, Ky.

• Work on the Elizabethtown-Radcliffe Connector Road in Hardin County. This was one of three sections of the road for which the company was the paving contractor. Because paving took place simultaneously on all sections, Scotty’s Contracting & Stone had to coordinate work crews and schedule carefully to ensure it could complete the project within the short time schedule.
• Work on a parking lot for Meijer in Bowling Green. The company had to complete most of the paving work during building construction so that the store could open almost immediately after it was completed. Scotty’s Contracting & Stone exceeded all of the owner’s requirements for the project.
• Work on the National Corvette Museum Motorsports park track and autocross skid pad. The project included construction of a 3.15-mile course, plus a 22-acre paddock area. The company looked at every aspect of the asphalt — mix design, liquid asphalt, paving, aggregate source, and smoothness — to ensure a smooth, durable pavement with the proper grip and tire wear characteristics.



Coastal Bridge Co. LLC of Baton Rouge, La.

• Work on the Costco property in Baton Rouge. The scheduling was a challenge since the company had to complete all paving in a short amount of time and while other construction was going on at the site.
• Work on I-10 in Calcasieu Parish. Because of heavy interstate traffic, the company paved at night, requiring extensive traffic control. Incorporating RAP and ground tire rubber into the mixes, and using porous asphalt for the surface course produced a smooth, high-quality interstate.
• Mill and overlay of LA 304/LA 308 in Thibodaux. The company incorporated RAP and ground tire rubber into the asphalt mixes. The company met challenges posed by heavy commuter and residential traffic.
• Work on SH 70/LA 3125 in Convent. The company milled and overlaid the roads, and built two new turn lanes to improve traffic flow. Coastal Bridge Co. paved the highly-traveled route in an efficient and timely manner, with minimal interruptions to the public.


Diamond B Construction of Alexandria, La.

• Work on LA 118 in Sabine Parish. The job included cold planing, pavement patching, line treatment, and placing of an in-place stabilized base course and a Superpave asphalt overlay. The company used RAP in all asphalt mixes, and used warm-mix technologies on some pavement courses to reduce the project’s environmental footprint. When completed, the smooth asphalt road earned incentives for density and ride quality.



P.J. Keating Co., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Lunenburg, Mass.

• Work on I-195 in Fall River. The project included micro-milling and paving of the mainline road, four bridges, ramps, and a 600-foot-long tunnel under City Hall with porous pavement and RAP mixes. Traffic control and careful scheduling was essential in this busy traffic area.
• Work on the milling, overlay, and widening of Route 140 and Route 12. The company made several suggestions for improving the proposed project scope, including the use of WMA and construction of a berm during mainline paving.
• Work on the resurfacing of the parking lot for the Target Store in Taunton. Working closely with the milling subcontractor, the company developed a pattern of planing, paving, and striping that allowed them to open each area within 24 hours.



Gray & Son Inc. of Timonium, Md.

• Work on the outer loop of the Baltimore Beltway (I-695) in Maryland. The mill and overlay project was on a high-traffic volume area on I-695. To reduce impacts on drivers, the roadway surface was removed during the night.



Ajax Paving Industries Inc. of Troy, Mich.

• Work on Chrysler Florida’s Evaluation Center straightaway in Naples. Chrysler uses this straightway as part of its corporate average fuel economy testing process, so the wearing course had unique design and testing requirements. Ajax Paving Industries corrected pavement elevations, performed micro milling, and met the project’s stringent specifications for mixture properties, surface ride quality, and surface texture.
• Work on Chrysler Technology’s Center Evaluation Track in Auburn Hills. The company repaired and milled the track in some sections, then used a specially designed paver with computer-controlled equipment to place a leveling course of asphalt and then a 1.5-inch asphalt wearing course. Ajax Paving Industries improved the ride quality of the track’s lanes by 90 percent or more.



Payne & Dolan Inc. of Gladstone, Mich.

• Work on Chippewa County International Airport Runway 16/34. The original concrete runway dated from the 1950s and minimal work had been done on it since the mid-1970s. Payne & Dolan addressed multiple joint failure and settlement problems, some unexpected, before milling, patching, and paving the surface.
• Work on CR 550, CR 510, and Triple A Road in Marquette County, Michigan. The project included reconstruction, realignment and major improvements to roads that serve a local mining operation plus the construction of six bridges.
• Work on M 35 in Gwinn. The company milled and paved 21.5 miles of pavement, meeting a tight schedule despite working under heavy truck traffic. Payne & Dolan used RAP in its project mixes.




Knife River Materials, Northern Minnesota Division of Bemidji, Minn.

• Work on Highway 3 in Dickey County, North Dakota. The company reclaimed some asphalt for use in the pavement base, and then used 5.5 inches of RAP in the pavement’s intermediate level.
• Work on 13 miles of MN 200 in Norman County. Work included pavement removal in some areas and repair and patching in others before the company laid base, leveling, and surface courses of asphalt.



APAC-Missouri Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Columbia, Mo.

• Work on Business Loop 70 and Route 763 in Boone County. The company performed most work at night and closed only single lanes to avoid disruptions to limit disruptions to businesses and motorists. APAC-Missouri incorporated 30 percent RAP into its asphalt mixes.
• Work on a pedestrian/bicycle lane for Clark Lane in the City of Columbia. The project involved widening and overlaying a 0.75 mile section of the roadway, and milling and overlaying another 1,350-foot lane. The company used sustainable paving practices, incorporating RAP and RAS into its mixes.
• Overlay, milling, and resurfacing work on SH 50, Business Route 50, and State Route K in Moniteau County. The company used RAP in its asphalt mixes. APAC-Missouri performed most work at night to reduce congestion and improve safety.
• Work on SH 7 in Camden County. The project included the addition of right and left shoulders and a 2-inch overlay. The company used RAP and RAS in its mixes.
• Work on 8.2 miles of U.S. 169 in Franklin and Miami counties. The project included grading, milling, paving, and shoulder widening plus a surface overlay. The company used RAP and RAS in the asphalt mixtures.
• Work on U.S. 63 in Boone and Callaway counties. The project involved milling the road and then placing a Superpave asphalt overlay atop it. The company worked at night and used RAP.


Hutchens Construction Co. of Cassville, Mo.

• Work on U.S. 412 in Huntsville, Arkansas. The company laid an 8-inch base, 6 inches of asphalt binder course and a 4-inch surface asphalt surface, using RAP in all mixes to save energy and conserve natural resources.



Omni Engineering Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Omaha, Neb.

• Rehabilitation of Ainsworth Regional Airport Runway 13/31. The company laid a 2.25-inch base, a 1-inch leveling course, and 1.75 inches of surface course, achieving an extremely smooth surface that required no grinding after placement. The asphalt pavement’s volumetrics, mat, and joint densities were extremely consistent.



Pike Industries Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Belmont, N.H.

• Work on Big Moose, Moosehead Junction, Harfords Point, Lilly Bay, and Frenchtown Roads in Greenville, Maine. Challenges included the logistics of moving paving crews to different sites, severe weather conditions, and long distances between the job and the asphalt plant.
• Mill and overlay of I-93/Ashland-Plymouth in Grafton County. The company incorporated 22 percent RAP into the mixes. Despite challenges that included work on 15 bridges and the need for detailed traffic planning, the company produced a high-quality pavement that earned maximum incentive for its smoothness.
• Rehabilitation of Morrisville–Stowe State Airport Runway 1/19. The company partnered with the Vermont Agency of Transportation to complete the project on time and to address some safety and design issues not included in the original contract. Pike Industries used RAP in its mixes.



C.J. Hesse Inc. of Atlantic Highlands, N.J.

• Work on the Robert J. Miller Air Park Runway 14/32 and Parallel Taxiway B. The company constructed the stone and HMA base courses of the 3,600-foot runway in multiple stages. It laid the surface course in just one shift using two material transfer devices, two pavers, two tack trucks, and five rollers. Working in an environmentally sensitive area, C.J. Hesse also constructed 25 acres of reptile habitat management areas and fenced off endangered plants at the site.


Earle Asphalt Co. of Farmingdale, N.J.

• Work on SH 33 in Monmouth County. The project required the mill and overlay of both westbound and eastbound roads to achieve a 36.5 percent improvement in ride quality. Paving crews worked at night to limit traffic disruptions.


Tilcon New York Inc., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Wharton, N.J.

• Work on the County College of Morris Campus. The company milled and overlaid various roads and parking lots to serve more than 8,000 students who attend the college.
• Work on the roadway resurfacing in Passaic County. The project consisted of milling and paving in six locations — winding country roads through rock cliffs and blind turns — that included residential and multiple state recreational areas and extensive wildlife.
• Mill and overlay work on Route 63 in Bergen County. The 3-mile project traversed multiple jurisdictions and included multi-directional intersections, large retail areas, and residential locations. To minimize inconvenience to the local community, all of the paving work was performed at night, during off-peak driving hours.
• Reconstruction of Newark Liberty International Airport Taxiway P. The company milled and paved the existing taxiway, built two new high-speed taxiways, upgraded the electrical system, and remediated ponding problems. Working mostly at night and on weekends, in a high-security area.



Barrett Paving Materials Inc. of Liverpool, N.Y.

• Work milling and paving of the route connection between I-481 and I-81 in Onondaga County. The company incorporated RAP in the project mixes. Working around land restrictions and through heavy traffic, Barrett Paving Materials rehabilitated the existing pavement before placing the final smooth asphalt surface.


Barrett Paving Materials Inc. of Watertown, N.Y.

• Work on Massena International Airport–Richards Field Runway 9/27. The company relocated and graded the poorly performing drainage system, reconstructed existing damaged pavement, and milled and paved the entire roadway.
• Mill and overlay of Ogdensburg International Airport Runway 9/27. Because the airport had only one runway, the company paved at night, using multiple crews to meet the demanding schedule. Despite challenges that included unpredictable weather conditions and an asphalt plant located an hour away, the company delivered the runway without delaying any flights.



Blythe Construction Inc., a co. of the Hubbard Group Inc. of Charlotte, N.C.

• Work on U.S. 321 in Gaston County. Using WMA, the company incorporated as much as 40 percent RAP in the mixes.


S.T. Wooten Corp. of Wilson, N.C.

• Work on NC 211 in Moore County. Working day and night, six-days a week, the company completed the reconstruction project before the U.S. open golf tournament was held nearby. S.T. Wooten Corp. used WMA, RAP, and RAS in the asphalt mixtures.
• Work on U.S. 74 in Columbus County. The project included the mill and overlay of the road. S.T. Wooten Corp. used WMA, RAP, and RAS in the asphalt mixtures.



Barrett Paving Materials Inc. of Franklin, Ohio

• Work on Clough Pike in Clearmont County. The company reconstructed and widened a section of the road from Mt. Carmel Tabasco Road to Glen Este Withamsville Road, while maintaining access to 91 driveways, an apartment complex, a gas station, and an elementary school.
• Work on Clough Pike in Hamilton County. The company widened and resurfaced an existing two-lane urban arterial road and made other improvements including curbing, walks, improved drainage, and improved traffic signals and turn lanes.
• Work on U.S. 40/Dogleg Roadway in the city of Union. Work included construction of new roads, and curb and gutter improvements to the storm sewer. The company used WMA and a high percentage of RAP in the asphalt mixes.


John R. Jurgensen Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio

• Reconstruction and road relocation of SR 122 in Warren County. The work eliminated a dangerous five-point intersection with heavy traffic volume. The company planed the existing pavement and overlaid it with WMA while incorporating RAP in the mixes.
• Work on SR 28 in Clinton County. The project included pavement repair, planing, and paving. The company used WMA and the maximum allowable amount of RAP in its mixes.
• Work on U.S. 42 in Greene and Warren counties. The four-lane roadway, built in the early 1960s, was in need of repair. The company removed the existing surface and replaced it with 9.25 inches of asphalt including base, binder, and surface courses. It used WMA and RAP in the project mixes.


Kelly Paving Inc. of Rayland, Ohio

• Work on I-70 in Wheeling and Tridelphia, West Virginia. High traffic volume at the project’s intersection with I-470 made the project challenging.


Kokosing Construction Co. Inc. of Mansfield, Ohio

• Work on I-71/I-670 Interchange/Columbus Crossroads. The best-value design-build project included reconstruction of roads and ramps, new bridges, retaining walls, urban avenues, and storm sewer work. The company used WMA and RAP in its mixes.


Shelly & Sands Inc. of Zanesville, Ohio

• Work on I-595 in Mahoning County. The company partnered with the Ohio Department of Transportation to reduce construction zone speeds during the work, maintaining traffic while emphasizing motorist and worker safety. Overlaying the road with 3.25 inches of asphalt in two lifts.


The Shelly Co., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Findlay, Ohio

• Work on the employee parking lot at the Home Depot Fulfillment Center in Troy. The complexity of the project and its size, layout, and multiple concrete islands required exceptional planning and the highest quality workmanship. Using WMA technology, The Shelly Co. produced a high-quality asphalt pavement for the retailer.
• Work on SR 65/SR 81 in Lima. The company overlaid the road with three courses of asphalt, producing a smooth pavement that is notable for its consistent density, appearance, and overall ride quality.


The Shelly Co., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Thornville, Ohio

• Work on CR 1 in South Point. This busy stretch of road includes three big box stores, three schools, three municipalities, and two ship yards.
• Work on Home Road in Delaware County. One of the most challenging aspects of the project was the paving of the intersection of Sawmill and Home Road. Paving of that area was restricted to 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., and work required the assistance of two law enforcement officers to direct traffic.
• Work for the construction of Meadowmoore Boulevard in Fairfield County. The company placed 10 inches of base course, 1.75 inches of leveling course, 1.75 inches of asphalt binder, and a 1.25-inch asphalt surface course on the road.
• Work on Mink Street in Licking County. The company removed the existing pavement, stabilized the subgrade, and laid an aggregate and asphalt base, a 1.75-inch intermediate asphalt course and a 1.25-inch asphalt surface course to create a dense asphalt pavement.
• Work on Richard Downing Airport Runway 4/22. The project consisted of milling butt joints in four locations, placing paving fabric, filling control joints, and placing a 2-inch overlay. During the 14-day project, which required close coordination of all subcontractors on the site.
• Work on SR 16 in Licking and Muskingum Counties. The project included resurfacing of a four-lane divided road and related work. The Shelly Co. worked at night to pave 80,000 tons of asphalt and produce a smooth, high-quality road for travelers in the area.
• Work on SR 772 in Ross County. This road is a curved, hilly route with steep grades and cross slopes. With paving taking place during planting season, the company worked with local farmers to get equipment from field to field without damaging the new pavement.
• Work in the Village of Granville. The project included asphalt resurfacing, curb ramp upgrades, and related work on West Broadway and Newark-Granville Road.


The Shelly Co., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Twinsburg, Ohio

• The mill and overlay of Clifton Boulevard in Lakewood. This project was rapidly let and constructed. The day that the pre-construction meeting took place, The Shelly Co. mobilized and began the removal of the existing pavement’s surface course. The product was completed in 65 days.
• Work on phases 2 and 3 of Riverview Road, in Boston Township. By partnering with Summit County’s engineer, the company was able to make the project more efficient. It widened the road, milled it, and then placed an overlay fabric on the road before laying two courses of asphalt on the entire surface.
• The Shelly Co. won the award for its work on SR 21 in the Village of Richfield. The road intersects with the Ohio Turnpike and carries heavy truck traffic from freight transfer companies. The Shelly Co. had to mill, repair and overlay the north and south ends of the road to different specifications, while maintaining traffic.
• Work on SR 9, SR 14, and SR 344 in and around the city of Salem. The project included nine different sections of the three roads. The Shelly Co. overcame challenges associated with traffic control and maintaining access to local businesses, using LEDs to guide motorists to alternate routes when possible.
• Reconstruction work on SR 422 in Geauga County. The project required 8.25 inches of new pavement to be applied, after excavation and undercut work was completed. The three-year scheduled delivery was accelerated by The Shelly Co. which used a robotic paver to achieve the desired profile and complete the job two-years ahead of schedule.


Southern Ohio Paving of Middletown, Ohio

• Work on the Hollywood Gaming parking lot at Dayton Raceway. Challenges of the job included an initially short paving schedule, and the need to work around 15 other contractors.



Haskell Lemon Construction Co. of Oklahoma City, Okla.

• Work on SH 4 in Mustang. Working under traffic in a highly developed area, the company milled the road and placed a 0.75-inch ultra-thin bonded wearing course surface in just a week.
• Haskell Lemon Construction Co. won the award for its work on SH 56 in Okemah. Without milling the road, and using a single 2.25-inch lift of asphalt, the company was produced an exceptional pavement, exceeding Oklahoma Department of Transportation smoothness requirements for full-depth paving.
• Work on SH 9 in Norman. The company milled and overlaid this stretch of state highway, which leads to a popular recreational lake. Working under traffic, just prior to peak summer season, Haskell Lemon Construction Co. produced with one lift of asphalt a pavement that exceeded smoothness specifications.



American Infrastructure of Worcester, Pa.

• Work on six-miles of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Montgomery County. The company used RAP in its asphalt mixes. Crews worked at night, within a very narrow paving window, and eventually went to seven-day shifts because of delays caused by rainy weather.
• Work on SR 462 in Lancaster County. The company used RAP in its mixtures, and WMA for paving. Despite restricted work hours and traffic that included horses and buggies on a narrow roadway, the company produced a smooth-riding pavement.


Lindy Paving Inc. of New Galilee, Pa.

• Work on 5.4 miles of SR 376 in Lawrence County. The extensive project included pavement patching, ramp overlay, bridge work, and upgrades to guardrail and drainage. The company incorporated both RAP and crumb rubber asphalt from tires into the mixes.



Bowes Construction Inc. of Brookings, S.D.

• Reconstruction of Brookings Regional Airport Runway 12/30. Challenges the company overcame during the multi-phase project included scheduling conflicts and the need for close coordination with other contractors to meet construction milestone dates. Bowes Construction used a dedicated roller to achieve the required joint density and earned a bonus for the runway’s slope, strait edge, density, and material specifications.



Summers-Taylor Inc. of Elizabethton, Tenn.

• Work on Highway 75 in Kingsport, Tennessee. This reconstruction project consisted of taking a narrow two-lane roadway, which carried heavy traffic to the Tri-Cities Airport, and widen and rebuild into a five-lane highway. Since the reconstruction the roadway has greatly improved access to and from the Tri-Cities Airport.
• Work on SR 345 (Boones Creek Road) in Jonesborough, Tennessee’s Washington County. This roadway is situated between two major highways and is well traveled so Tennessee Department of Transportation decided that an asphalt overlay was needed to repair the roadway.
• Work on SR 400 in Johnson City, Tennessee. This mill and overlay project required Summers-Taylor to remove the surface layer, and then place a leveling course which helped to provide a smoother driving experience. The final surface course was aided by the use of a sonic leveling system.
• Work on SR 70 in Greene County. Summers-Taylor built a smooth roadway by using a sonic ski sensor leveling system. They placed the thin lift mix and performed spot leveling over the areas where depressions were affecting the road’s drivability.
• Work on Tri-Cities Regional Airport’s (TCRA) runway 5-23 rehabilitation. Work was performed over two 61-hour weekend shutdowns. The original runway surface had a number of issues, including drainage problems and significant surface cracking which were corrected through the pre-planning and coordination with their partners.



Anderson Columbia Co. Inc of Weslaco, Texas

• Work on 17.5 miles of U.S. 83 in Zapata County. The project required multiple traffic shifts and transition zones, as well as, close coordination with the owner and multiple other contractors who were working on other sections of the road. Anderson Columbia Co. maximized the use of RAP and RAS in the mixes.


Angel Brothers Enterprises of Baytown, Texas

• Work on I-10 in Fayette County. To maintain safety for motorists and paving crews, the company paved during the day instead of night as originally planned. It milled the road and placed a 1.5-inch overlay.


APAC-Texas Inc., Wheeler Cos., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Round Rock, Texas

• Work on FM 416 in Navarro County. Work included widening of the road and placement of a 2-inch overlay.


Clark Construction of Texas Inc. of San Antonio, Texas

• Work on 18.1 miles of U.S. 281 in Blanco and Burnet counties. The company provided value engineering that eliminated the one-course surface treatment and replaced it with a membrane under seal using a spray paver. This change reduced construction time and saved materials. Using a mix that included 20 percent RAP.


Hunter Industries Inc. of San Marcos, Texas

• Work on SH 36 within the city limits of Sealy in Austin County. Building under traffic in this urban setting, the company worked closely with the owner to overcome any project challenges. Hunter Industries placed three courses of asphalt on the road to rehabilitate the severely deteriorated roadway.
• Work on SH 72 in Bee County. This formerly rural road now handles heavy truck traffic for the Eagle Ford shale formation in south Texas. Hunter Industries incorporated RAP into the asphalt mixes to reduce the need for new materials. It laid a 7.5-inch base and a 1.5-inch surface course.


J.D. Ramming Paving Co. Ltd. of Austin, Texas

• Construction of a runway on JL Bar Ranch in Sonora. Challenges included an asphalt plant 180 miles from the site and a shortage of trucks in the area for transporting needed materials. The company reduced the environmental footprint of the project by using WMA and by incorporating RAP into the pavement mixes.


Jagoe Public Co. of Denton, Texas

• Work on U.S. 380 in Collin County. Work included the widening of the road, drainage improvements, and an overlay topped with an ultra-thin bonded wearing course. Despite challenges that included heavy traffic with a subdivision and major hospital within the project limits.


Smith & Co. of Conroe, Texas

• Work on U.S. 59 in Polk County. The company partnered with the Texas Department of Transportation on the project, which included removal of concrete pavement, pavement repair, and milling and overlay.



Hales Sand & Gravel Co., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Redmond, Utah

• Hales Sand & Gravel Co. won the award for the construction of Runway 1/19 at Richfield Municipal Airport. The pavement consisted of geotextile fabric, 21 inches of subbase, 4 inches of permeable subbase, geotextile fiber, 8 inches of aggregate base, and 4 inches of asphalt for the surface. The company used a GPS-equipped paver for the final course.


Staker Parson Cos., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Ogden, Utah

• Work on U.S. 30 in Montpelier, Idaho. The company milled three inches off each lane of this busy two-lane highway, performed a full-depth reclamation, and then placed a final asphalt surface.


Staker Parson Cos., an Oldcastle Materials Co. of Salt Lake City, Utah

• Work on I-15 in Utah County. The company worked at night, milling the roadway and placing a 1.5-inch course of asphalt on the surface. This was a pilot project that reduced motorists’ speed to 50 miles per hour in the work zone, which made crews safer without increasing traffic delays.
• Work on SR 172 in Salt Lake County. The milling and paving work required the company to use several different traffic patterns to keep motorists safe. Staker Parsons Cos. completed the project on time and within budget.
• Work on SR 190 in Brighton. This road is at the start of Brighton Ski Resort, which creates sub-surface and surface conditions that vary from saturated to dry. Staker Parsons Cos. worked on the road as snow melt started, but overcame problems to build a quality asphalt road in partnership with the Utah DOT.
• Work on SR 89/State Street in Salt Lake County. Challenges included creating a workable schedule that allowed completion of this heavily traveled road within 90 calendar days. Work included milling and overlay of the road, as well as ramp replacements and utility collar reconstruction.



American Infrastructure of Glen Allen, Va.

• Work on I-295 Southbound Richmond/Petersburg Bypass. The company milled the existing road to the concrete base, patched areas that needed repair and then placed an asphalt surface approximately 3/4-inch thick.
• Work on I-64 Eastbound in Goochland County. The company milled and overlaid 4.1 miles of the road, using RAP in the mixes to save energy and reduce the use of virgin materials.
• Work on SR 150/Chippenham Parkway Northbound in Richmond. With a hospital on the route, the company had to schedule work carefully to provide access for emergency vehicles and personnel. It opened all lanes to traffic within the required time frame each day.
• Work on SR 288 Northbound in Chesterfield County. The company patched the existing concrete road before paving and ground the joints leading from bridges, and in other pavement transition zones to produce a smoother, longer-lasting asphalt surface.



Northeast Asphalt Inc. of Greenville, Wis.

• Work on CTH W in Manitowoc County. The company removed, patched, and replaced three inches of pavement within a very tight project schedule. It incorporated green paving techniques, using RAP in the project mixes.
• Work on U.S. 49 in Fond du Lac County. After repairing road damage and installing culverts, the company milled and paved the pavement. Throughout the construction process, it maintained heavy tractor trailer traffic to a factory along the road.


Payne & Dolan Inc. of Waukesha, Wis.

• Work on I-94 in Madison. To minimize disruptions to the road’s heavy traffic, the company performed all work at night. It used RAP and warm-mix asphalt in its mixtures.